What is Pregnancy?
Pregnancy is a boom for women. It’s an important stage in her life in which she is giving birth to a new being.
When women’s pregnancy period is nearly 10 months. She tolerates lots of difficulties and pain gone through. she will be of utmost happiness when she delivers her baby.
This is the process initializing for pregnancy. The fusion of male gamete(spermatozoa or sperm) connects with the female egg or ovum.
Sperm(23 chr) +ovum(23 chr)=zygote(46chr).
Chr—chromosome, genetic material.
The egg released in a woman every month is viable only for 24 hrs. At this time, the fusion has to intervene within two days of the release of the egg. Sperm once entered the vagina is viable for 5-7 days depending on the body condition.
Increased Chances Of Fertilization:
- Women are most fertile during the age of 23-27, but chances continue up to the age of 29 too. After this age probabilities fall down to a greater level.
- Regular menstrual period so that the release of the egg and hormonal levels are regularized and predictable.
- Chances of pregnancy are at peak during the ovulation period (time at which egg is released) every month usually it occurs around 10-14th day of regular menstrual periods.
- A good healthy body is essential for pregnancy.
A woman, when she want to planning for pregnancy should take care of her health properly.
- The female should consume that food which is rich in protein, vitamin, iron, calcium. You should be started taking well in advance of three months. This is very essential for her to bear all the tough times during pregnancy and to meet the increased demand during pregnancy.
- Maintain a healthy weight with a regular exercise regimen.
- Avoid illicit drugs, alcohol, and caffeinated drinks.
- During pregnancy, a woman should consume 400 mg of folic acid which plays a very significant role in the neural (BRAIN) development.
- It’s always good to have an opinion of the gynecologist before getting pregnant.
What is Pregnancy Signs & Symptoms
The earliest time a pregnancy be detected is about 3 weeks that’s when your hormone level is up. It is easier to detect a blood test that can detect the confirm pregnancy from about 2 weeks. It is more accurate as well.
- Missed period if otherwise have a regular period.
- Implantation bleeding occurs during the III-IVth week of the last menstrual period (LMP).
- Breast feeling tender, soft & sore.
- Morning sickness
- Increased craving for food.
- Fatigue,dizziness,headache(hormonal effects)
- Mood swings.
- Can feel the movements of the fetus.
- Emotional instability.
- The abdomen starts showing up.
- Increased urinating feeling.
- Abdominal size reaching it to the maximum.
- Improper digestion and flatulence.
- Lower backache due to the arching of the spine.
- Increased hair fall.
- Psychological stress.
First Medical Visit:
The first visit scheduled between 8 to 12 weeks is designed to determine general health and give health care and provide clues to the risk factors that might affect your pregnancy.
- Through physical examination.
- Ultrasound scan.
- Complete blood count.
A woman should test regularly for physically transmitted diseases & hepatitis.
Stages Of Pregnancy:
The total period of female pregnancy is 40 weeks from the last menstrual period called a gestational period.
The gestational period divided into three steps based on the growth pattern of the fetus. They are
First Trimester: (Up to 14 weeks of gestation)
It is considered to be started from the first day of women’s last menstrual period.
During this stage,
Sperm + egg = zygote.
The blastocyst has an outer most layer, WHICH is known as trophoblast. It’s gets embedded in the uterine wall forming placenta later.
It produces a human chorionic gonadotrophic hormone which gives the first indication of pregnancy in serum (blood) and urine later.
Thus there will be embryological development of the fetus in this stage.
Concept us between the time of fertilization to 10 weeks of pregnancy is called so.
After this, once the embryological division is finished it starts differentiating morphological, this stage from the 10th week onward is known as a fetus.
By the end of the first month, the baby is about 1/4 inch long.
After completed the first month of pregnancy, all the major organs have been formed. For pregnant women, the first month is very sensitive. There are more POSSIBILITIES for miscarriages.
Second Trimester: (14 to 28 weeks of gestation)
In this stage, there is full-blown growth of the fetus increasing the demand from the mother. During this stage, the size of the fetus increases dramatically.
Third Trimester:(28 weeks to delivery)
In the third trimester will be the maturation of all the organs that have developed earlier. There will be regular rapid movements of the fetus.
Care During Pregnancy
A mother should put extra effort to take care of her health. she has to maintain her physical as well as psychological health.
Food has to be enriched with a lot of vitamins, iron, proteins etc.mainly she has to take lots of fruits, vegetables, milk, egg, fish, green leafy vegetables, soya, ragi, etc.
At the same time, she should be physically fit by doing particular exercises throughout her pregnancy.
Psychological health plays a very important role. she should nurture a positive mindset and happy thoughts.
Due to hormonal imbalance, pregnant women are prone to dental problems like gingivitis. So it’s important to take care of her dental health too. Dental treatments like extractions if being an emergency can be done safely in the II trimester.
A pregnancy is considered to have reached a term between 37 and 40 weeks from the beginning of the last menstruation. Labour is marked by the onset of regular contractions of the uterus.
The majority of the case have a normal delivery but few conditions like cord prolapse require an emergency cesarean section which is nothing but surgical removal of the fetus from the mother.
What is the Complication of Pregnancy?
There are lots of reasons for Complication during Pregnancy. Mostly it occurs and common in First trimester.
- Ectopic pregnancy where there is the implantation of the embryo outside the uterus. It has to be terminated otherwise there is a risk for the death of the mother.
- Gestational diabetes When the body is not able to make all the insulin it needs during pregnancy there is a build-up of high levels of glucose in the blood and is termed Gestational Diabetes.The newborn will be overweight and there are more chances for them to get type 2 diabetes later in their life.
- Pre-eclampsia there is a rapid rise in blood pressure due to protein which is released from the placenta causing endothelial dysfunction in maternal blood vessels.
- First Trimester of Pregnancy
- The Second Trimester of Pregnancy
- The Third Trimester of Pregnancy
- Pregnancy Test
- Gestational Diabetes during Pregnancy
- Twin Pregnancy and Types of Twin
- Breast Feeding- The best Nutrition to Infant
- Teenage Pregnancy: Symptoms and diagnosis